This essay will analyse the evidence both to get and up against the argument that development takes place in periods. There are many theories relating to kid development. A lot of which claim the existence of levels within the creation process. One of the primary theories is Piaget's, whom focused on the cognitive progress children. This essay can look at Piaget's theory of cognitive expansion in children and take a look at any confident and adverse aspects of this kind of theory. It will likewise look at Freud's theory of sexual advancement in children and check out the positive and negative attributes of this theory. The final significant theory that is to be looked at is definitely the information control approach, which has a brief look at positive and negative features of this particular theory.
The term advancement in itself can be defined as the progression of a living thing as it grows, matures and transforms throughout the lifetime (Smith, Cowie, Cutting blades, 2003). Psychologists who analyze child development look at the method by which children develop. Many psychologists believe that advancement occurs in stages inside children. Piaget particularly a new theory associated with the cognitive development of children. He assumed there were four stages: the sensorimotor stage, which happens in infancy, and is if the child uses their growing senses and motor abilities to explore their particular environment (Kaplan, 1998). The second stage of development is definitely the Preoperational level, this takes place between the ages of two and seven. During this level the child is definitely expanding their very own language skills but nonetheless has a incredibly egocentric view of the world, believing that everyone else sees specific circumstances similar to the way that they carry out (Smith, Cowie, Blades, 2003). The third stage is the Tangible Operational Stage, which happens between the age groups of eight and a dozen. Throughout this kind of stage, children become less egocentric and therefore are able to observe things by another person's standpoint (Kaplan, 1998). They are also in a position to understand " conservation of mass, size, weight and volume", (Smith, Cowie and Blades, 2003). For example therefore they know that beakers of various height and width can take the same volume of liquid. A final stage of cognitive expansion according to Piaget is a Formal Functional Stage. This kind of stage occurs from the age of 14 upwards. At this time the child can begin to reason abstractly and think somewhat scientifically (Kaplan, 1998). Piaget came to the conclusion that development takes place in these several stages by observing kids and concluding that their development will take place in periods (Smith, Cowie and Rotor blades, 2003). Piaget also executed experiments, such as the " water-beaker experiment". In this experiment, you will find two beakers, one short and large, the other tall and narrow, both of equal quantity. The brief, wide beaker is filled with drinking water and twins aged 4 and eight are asked to pour the same amount of water into the tall slim glass so they both develop the same amount of drinking water. The effects show that the four year old is incapable of understanding that the tall slim beaker, whilst it looks like it contains more liquefied, actually provides the same quantity. The eight year old, nevertheless , is able to be familiar with concept that they hold the same volume of the liquid even though they are really of a distinct shape to one another.
Piaget's theory has come up against certain criticisms, for example , afterwards studies have demostrated that not almost all stages of development will be precise. Further more studies demonstrate that a few children display signs of understanding conservation ahead of Piaget recommended it would take place (Smith, Cowie, Blades, 2003). Another critique of this theory is that the methods Piaget used in his research were not clinical. He didn't use regulates in his trials with kids, as a result of this it can be believed that the outcome was caused by another factor (Kaplan, 1998). An additional criticism of Piaget's theory is...
Recommendations: Smith, G. Cowie, H. Blades, Meters (2003) Understanding Children's Expansion, Blackwell Submitting Ltd, UK
Kaplan, L. (1998) Your Odyssey: Life-Span Development, Brooks/Cole Publishing Business, USA.
Eysenck, M. (2000) Psychology: A Student's Guide, Psychology Press, UK